Thursday, 23 May 2019 02:43 pm Phil. Time

History

THE CONQUEST OF CEBU

Legazpi convoked a council of officers to decide where to establish the permanent Spanish settlement. The majority of officers voted to establish it in Cebu. On Easter Sunday, the fleet, guided by Kings Gala and Katuna, left Bohol and anchored at Cebu on April 27, 1565. The Cebuans, led by their king named Tupas (Humabon’s son), massed at the shore in battle array, ready to resist the white invaders. Under flag of truce, Father Urdaneta went ashore to negotiate for amicable relations with Tupas, but the latter refused to heed his talk of peace. The parley having failed, Legazpi resorted to force of arms. Under cover of an artillery barrage, the Spanish soldiers landed and engaged the Cebuan warriors in battle. The former won because of their superior arms, forcing the latter to retreat to the hills and leaving their kingdom in flames.

More of a statesman than a conquistador, Legazpi sought to win the Cebuans by a policy of attraction. With the help of Cid Hamal, a Mohammedan Malay who happened to be in Cebu at that time, he was able to convince Tupas of his friendly intentions. Accordingly, on June 4, 1565, a peace treaty was drawn up, whereby the Filipinos agreed to recognize Spanish sovereignty and pay tribute, and whereby, in return, Legazpi promised to protect them from their enemies and to conduct trade between Spaniards and Filipinos on a reciprocal basis. That same year, Legazpi founded the first permanent Spanish settlement in Cebu–on a strategic site granted to him by King Tupas.

THE REVOLT OF TAMBLOT ( 1621-22 )

In the year 1621 the flames of a religious revolt engulfed the island of Bohol. This disturbance was incited by a Filipino babaylan or priest named Tamblot, who exhorted the people to return to the faith of their forefathers and convinced them “that the time has come when they could free themselves from the oppression of the Spaniards, inasmuch as they were assured of the aid of their ancestors and diuatas, or gods.”

Around 2,000 Boholanos responded to Tamblot’s war call and began the uprising at a time when most of the Jesuit fathers, the spiritual administrators of the island, were in Cebu celebrating the feast of the beatification of St. Xavier.

News of the revolt reached Cebu, and immediately the alcalde-mayor, Don Juan de Alcarazo rushed an expedition to Bohol, consisting of 50 Spaniards and more than 1,000 Filipinos. On New Year’s Day, 1622, the government forces began the campaign against the rebels. In a fierce battle, fought in a blinding rain, Tamblot and his followers were crushed. The gallant valor of the Cebuan soldiers in this fight gave victory to Spain.

THE DAGOHOY REBELLION (1744-1829)

In 1744 the island of Bohol became once more the arena of a serious insurrection against Spain. In that year Father Gaspar Morales, Jesuit curate of Inabangan, ordered a constable to capture a man who had abandoned his Christian religion. The brave constable pursued the fugitive, but the later resisted and killed him. His corpse was brought to town. Father Morales refused to give the constable Christian burial because he had died in a duel and this was banned by the Church.
Francisco Dagohoy, brother of the deceased, became so infuriated at the priest that he instigated the people to rise in arms. The signal of the uprising was the killing of Father Guiseppe Lamberti, Italian Jesuit curate of Jagna, on January 24, 1744. Shortly afterwards Father Morales was killed by Dagohoy. The rebellion rolled over the whole island like a tropical typhoon. Bishop Miguel Lino de Espeleta of Cebu, who exercised ecclesiastical authority over Bohol, tried vainly to mollify the rebellious Boholanos.

Dagohoy defeated the Spanish-Filipino forces sent against him. He established a free government in the mountains, and had 3,000 followers, who subsequently increased to 20,000. The patriots remained unsubdued in their mountains stronghold, and, even after Dagohoy’s death, continued to defy Spanish power.

Twenty Spanish governors-general, from Gasper de la Torre (1739-45) to Juan Antonio Martinez (1822-25), tried to quell the rebellion and failed. In 1825, General Mariano Ricafort (1825-30), a kind and able administrator, became governor-general of the Philippines. Upon his order, Alcade-mayor Jose Lazaro Cairo, at the head of 2,200 Filipino-Spanish troops and several batteries, invaded Bohol on May 7, 1827. The brave Boholanos resisted fiercely. Alcade-mayor Cairo won several engagements, but failed to crush the rebellion. In April, 1828, another Spanish expedition under Captain Manuel Sanz landed in Bohol. After more than a year of hard campaign, he finally subdued the patriots. By August 31, 1829, the rebellion had ceased. Governor Ricafort, with chivalric magnanimity, pardoned 19,420 survivors and permitted them to live in new villages at the lowlands. These villages are now the towns of Batuanan, Cabulao, Catigbian, and Vilar.

Dagohoy will always live in the pages of Philippine history, not only as a good brother and a heroic man, but also as a leader of the longest Filipino insurrection on record. His revolt lasted 85 years (1744-1829).

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